Archive for the ‘Code’ Category

Sneaking features through the back door

15/04/2017 Leave a comment

Sometimes programming language developers decide that certain practices are bad, so bad that they try to prevent their use through the language they develop.

For example: In both Java and C# multiple inheritance is not allowed. The language standard prohibits it, so trying to specify more than one base class will result in compiler error.

Another blocking “feature” these languages share, is a syntax preventing creation of derivative classes all together.

For Java, it is declaring a class to be final which might be a bit confusing for new users, since the same keyword is used to declare constants.

As an example, this will not compile:

public final class YouCanNotExtendMe {

public class TryingAnyway extends YouCanNotExtendMe {

For C# just replace final with sealed.

This can also be applied to specific methods instead of the entire class, to prevent overriding, in both languages.

While application developers may not find many uses for this feature, it shows up even in the Java standard library. Just try extending the built-in String class.

But, language features are tools in a tool box.

Each one can be both useful and misused or abused. It depends solely on the developer using the tools.

And that is why as languages evolve over the years, on some occasions their developers give up fighting the users and add some things they left out at the beginning.

Usually in a sneaky, roundabout way, to avoid admitting they were wrong or that they succumbed to peer pressure.

In this post, I will show two examples of such features, one from Java, and one from C#.

C# Extension methods

In version 3.0 of C# a new feature was added to the language: “extension methods”.

Just as their name suggests, they can be used to extend any class, including a sealed class. And you do not need access to the class implementation to use them. Just write your own class with a static method (or as many methods as you want), that has the first parameter denoted by the keyword this and of the type you want to extend.

Microsoft’s own guide gives an example of adding a method to the built in sealed String type.

Those who know and use C# will probably argue that there are two key differences between extension methods and derived classes:

  1. Extension methods do not create a new type.
    Personally, I think that will only effect compile time checks, which can be replaced with run time checks if not all instances of the ‘base’ class can be extended.
    Also, a creative workaround may be possible with attributes.
  2. Existing methods can not be overridden by extension methods.
    This is a major drawback, and I can not think of a workaround for it.
    But, you can still overload methods. And who knows what will be added in the future…

So it may not be complete, but a way to break class seals was added to the language after only two major iterations.

Multiple inheritance in Java through interfaces

Java has two separate mechanisms to support polymorphism: inheritance and interfaces.

A Java class can have only one base class it inherits from, but can implement many interfaces, and so can be referenced through these interface types.

public interface IfaceA {
    void methodA();

public interface IfaceB {
    void methodB();

public class Example implements IfaceA, IfaceB {
    public void methodA() {

    public void methodB() {

Example var0 = new Example();
IfaceA var1 = var0;
IfaceB var2 = var0;

But, before Java 8, interfaces could not contain any code, only constants and method declarations, so classes could not inherit functionality from them, as they could by extending a base class.

Thus while interfaces provided the polymorphic part of multiple inheritance, they lacked the functionality reuse part.

In Java 8 all that changed with addition of default and static methods to interfaces.

Now, an interface could contain code, and any class implementing it would inherit this functionality.

It appears that Java 9 is about to take this one step further: it will add private methods to interfaces!

Before this, everything in an interface had to be public.

This essentially erases any differences between interfaces and abstract classes, and allows multiple inheritance. But, being a back door feature, it still has some limitations compared to true multiple inheritance that is available in languages like Python and C++:

  • You can not inherit any collection of classes together. Class writer must allow joined inheritance by implementing the class as interface.
  • Unlike regular base classes, interfaces can not be instantiated on their own, even if all the methods of an interface have default implementations.
    This can be easily worked around by creating a dummy class without any code that implements the interface.
  • There are no protected methods.
    Maybe Java 10 will add them…

But basically, after 8 major iterations of the language, you can finally have full blown multiple inheritance in Java.


These features have their official excuses:
Extension methods are supposed to be “syntactic sugar” for “helper” and utility classes.
Default method implementation is suppose to allow extending interfaces without breaking legacy code.

But whatever the original intentions and reasoning were, the fact remains: you can have C# code that calls instance methods on objects that are not part of the original object, and you can now have Java classes that inherit “is a” type and working code from multiple sources.

And I don’t think this is a bad thing.
As long as programmers use these tools correctly, it will make code better.
Fighting your users is always a bad idea, more so if your users are developers themselves.

Do you know of any other features like this that showed up in other languages?
Let me know in the comments or by email!

Putting it out there…

03/04/2017 Leave a comment

When I first discovered Linux and the world of Free Software, I was already programming in the Microsoft ecosystem for several years, both as a hobby, and for a living.

I thought switching to writing Linux programs was just a matter of learning a new API.

I was wrong! Very wrong!

I couldn’t find my way through the myriad of tools, build systems, IDEs and editors, frameworks and libraries.


I needed to change my thinking, and get things in order. Luckily, I found an excellent book that helped me do just that: “Beginning Linux Programming” from Wrox.

Chapter by chapter this book guided me from using the terminal, all the way up to building desktop GUI programs like I was used to on Windows.


But you can’t learn programming just by reading a book. You have to use what you learn immediately and build something, or you will not retain any knowledge!

And that is exactly what I did: as soon as I got far enough to begin compiling C programs, I started building “Terminal Bomber”.

In hindsight, the name sounds like a malware. But it is not. It’s just a game. It is a clone of “Mine sweeper” for the terminal, using ncurses library.


I got as far as making it playable, adding high scores and help screens. I even managed to use Autotools for the build system.

And then I lost interest and let it rot. With the TODO file still full of items.

I never even got to packaging it for distribution, even though I planned from the start to release it under GPL v3.


But now, in preparation for a series of posts about quickly and easily setting up HTTP server for IPC, I finally opened a Github account.

And to fill it with something, I decided to put up a repository for this forgotten project.


So here we go:

Terminal Bomber finally sees the light of day!

“Release early release often” is a known FOSS mantra. This release is kind of late for me personally, but early in the apps life cycle.

Will anything become of this code? I don’t know. It would be great if someone at least runs it.

Sadly, this is currently the only project I published that is not built for a dead OS.


Just putting it out there… 😛

Beware Java’s half baked generics

13/10/2016 Leave a comment

Usually I don’t badmouth Java. I think its a very good programming language.

In fact, I tend to defend it in arguments on various forums.

Sure, it lacks features compared to some other languages, but then again throwing everything including a kitchen sink in to a language is not necessarily a good idea. Just look at how easy it is to get a horrible mess of code in C++ with single operator doing different things depending on context. Is &some_var trying to get address of a variable or a reference? And what does &&some_var do? It has nothing to do with the boolean AND operator!

So here we have a simple language friendly to new developers, which is good because there are lots of those using it on the popular Android platform.

Unfortunately, even the best languages have some implementation detail that will make you want to lynch their creators or just reap out your hair, depending on whether you externalize your violent tendencies or not.

Here is a short code example that demonstrates a bug that for about 5 minutes made me think I was high on something:

HashMap<Integer, String> map = new HashMap<>();

byte a = 42;
int b = a;

map.put(b, "The answer!");

if (map.containsKey(a))
	System.out.println("The answer is: " + map.get(a));
	System.out.println("What was the question?");

What do you expect this code to print?

Will it even compile?

Apparently it will, but the result will surprise anyone who is not well familiar with Java’s generic types.

Yes folks – the key will not be found and the message What was the question? will be printed.

Here is why:

The generic types in Java are not fully parameterized. Unlike a proper C++ template, some methods of generic containers take parameters of type Object, instead of the type the container instantiation was defined with.

For HashMap, even though it’s add is properly parameterized and will raise a compiler error if the wrong type key is used, the get and containsKey methods take a parameter of type Object and will not even throw a runtime exception if the wrong type is provided. They will simply return null or false respectively as if the key was simply not there.

The other part of the problem is that primitive types such as byte and int are second class citizens in Java. They are not objects like everything else and can not be used to parameterize generics.

They do have object equivalents named Byte and Integer but those don’t have proper operator overloading so are not convenient for all use cases.

Thus in the code sample above the variable a gets autoboxed to Byte, which as far as Java is concerned a completely different type that has nothing to do with Integer and therefore there is no way to search for Byte keys in Integer map.

A language that implements proper generics would have parameterized these methods so either a compilation error occurred or an implicit cast was made.

In Java, it is up to you as a programmer to keep you key type straight even between seemingly compatible types like various size integers.

In my case I was working with a binary protocol received from external device and the function filling up the map was not the same one reading from it, so it was not straight forward to align types everywhere. But in the end I did it and learned my lesson.

Maybe this long rant will help you too. At least until a version of Java gets this part right…

Get XML element value in Python using minidom

29/07/2011 Leave a comment

Finally, a “development” post for my “developer” blog.

Recently, I’ve been working on some XML processing programs in Python.

The minidom module is great if you want your XML in a tree, and want tag names and attributes easily accessible, but, what happens if you want the text content inside a tag?

DOM, does not have a “tag value” concept. Instead, every bit of text in the XML, including the indentation is a “text node”, which is parsed as a separate tree element.

That means, that if you have something like this:

<name>John Smith</name>

You will get a tree with two levels: top level for “name” element, for which nodeValue will be None. This element will have a child node (second level of the tree) which will be of type TEXT_NODE an it’s values will be the text “John Smith”.

So far, so good, but, what if the value we want has some XML markup of its own?

<text>This text has <b>bold</b> and <i>italic</i> words.</text>

Now we have a complex tree on our hands with 3 levels and multiple branches.

It will look something like this:

          |-"This text has
          |  |_________
          |            -"bold"
          |  |_________
          |            -"italic"

As you can see, this is a big mess, with the text split in to multiple parts on two separate tree levels.

There is no facility in minidom, to get the value of our <text> tag directly.

There is however, a way around it, that is simple but not obvious: you need to “flatten” the desired tag in to an XML string, then strip the tag it self from the string and you will have a clean value.

Here is the code:

def get_tag_value(node):
    """retrieves value of given XML node
    node - node object containing the tag element produced by minidom

    content of the tag element as string

    xml_str = node.toxml() # flattens the element to string

    # cut off the base tag to get clean content:
    start = xml_str.find('>')
    if start == -1:
        return ''
    end = xml_str.rfind('<')
    if end < start:
        return ''

    return xml_str[start + 1:end]

Just pass the node you want the value of to the function and it will give you back the value as a string, including any internal markup.

I place this code in the public domain, which means you can use it anywhere any way you want with no strings attached.